Globally, youth policy is a tool through which young people’s issues and needs are met and their wellbeing is assured by different welfare states, international, independent and voluntary organisations.
This book is an extract from the author’s PhD thesis: “Youth Policy in Ireland and India: a Comparative study”. It was completed at the National university of Ireland, Maynooth (NUIM), Ireland in 2014. It is dedicated to the Indian Youth and to author’s late father Mr. Motcham who, in the course of his life, worked tirelessly as a teacher and a community worker with a keen interest in the welfare of the youth. This book is the fruit of comparative study on the youth policies of Ireland and India. However, here the author limits himself mainly to focusing on the Indian context, leaving aside the other part of his research.
This book analytically explores the Indian government youth policies from 1951 to 2014 through the lens of Gough’s five ‘I’s of social policy-making under five parameters, viz. industrialization, interest, institution, ideas and international environment. Analyses of youth policies gain significance as about 70 per cent of the Indian population is below the age of 35 years. This book would serve as a reference and guidance material for the policy-makers, as it provides a critical analysis of youth policies during a span of 63-year period. The author has discussed in detail the ‘five I’s’ framework and explained as to how the youth policies conformed to the five factors of the framework.
Ian Gough model is preferred because it gives a clear platform to acquire a better knowledge and understanding of Indian youth policy. It gives a prospect to find out the factors and actors that influence youth policy. No one has so far used such a conceptual framework to study youth policy. This model enables the policy makers to improve the quality and effectiveness of the national youth policy. Further Gough’s model of social policy-making is also used as a conceptual framework to compare youth policy of other state/country within and outside. The uniqueness of using this model is that it draws on Gough’s “Five I’s”, along with some additional sub-categories which are used as an analytical lens, to look at the factors and actors that influence youth policy in India.
Chapter One of this book begins with an introduction to the topic and primary documents used for this research. Chapter Two defines the term ‘youth’ and then discusses the need, purpose and benefits of youth policy. Chapter Three outlines Gough “five I’s” framework in detail, suggesting that it provides a useful approach to the study of youth and youth policy. Chapter Four gives a detailed account of Indian youth policy: its historical development and emergence; the Indian youth profile; and the various factors and actors that have shaped and influenced their conception, policy making and implementation. Chapter Five examines the youth policy of India through the parameters that are widely known as Gough’s “Five I’s”: ‘Industrialisation, Interest, Institution, Ideas and International Environment’. Finally, Chapter Six interprets and discusses the similarities and differences in the youth policies of India and Ireland.
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